International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol IV Issue SPL 3, July – Sept 2013

S.No. Research Topic Paper ID Download

Performance Analysis and Evaluation of ODMRP Routing Protocol in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Sudhir Kant, Nagendra Sah

Multicasting is intended for group-oriented communication services. One particularly challenging environment for multicast is a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) where, the network topology can change randomly and rapidly, at unpredictable times. As a result, several specific multicast routing protocols for MANET have been proposed. Multicast approaches can generally be categories into two: proactive and On-Demand. The proactive approaches pre-computed and maintains routes to all nodes, including nodes to which no packets are being sent. The on-demand approach creates the routes between nodes that are solely determined when they are explicitly needed to route packets. Multicasting protocols can also be categorized based on the structure used to forward multicast packets which are tree and mesh based. The uses of on demand routing approaches have been shown to have significantly benefits in terms of reducing the routing protocol’s overhead.
Therefore, this paper focuses on performance of tree and mesh based multicast routing protocols over MANET. This paper analyses and evaluates well known multicast routing protocol ODMRP under a wide range network condition & realistic scenario more a specifically the concern is to categorized a merit tree & mesh based protocol over various ranges of MANET scenario based on representative performance metric .The simulation environment Qualnet 5.0. As a result this work investigates the relative strength weakness and applicability of each protocol to diverse situation.
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Social Capital and Knowledge-Based Society Rising in OECD Countries

Bessem Kouki

We will deal with the analysis of the knowledge based society rise and development. In this analysis, we will highlight the transition from the knowledge based economy to the knowledge based society. This will be done through an examination, by empirical validation, the main factors that led to this transition.
In this examination, we focus on the role of social capital in this process, especially in OECD countries. Furthermore, we bring into consideration, the dimension of social capital and we will try to build socio-quantitative indicators through a comparison with other socio-qualitative indicators representing this capital.
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Power-Saving Mechanisms to Achieve Reduced Energy Consumption While Maintaining Effective Communication by Using the Appropriate Transmission Power in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Vikas Sharma

Communication in ad hoc networks necessarily drains the batteries of the participating nodes, and eventually results in the failure of nodes due to lack of energy. Since the goal of an ad hoc network is to support some desired communication, energy conservation techniques must consider the impact of specific node failures on effective communication in the network. One of the promising mechanisms proposed to reduce the energy consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET’s) is the transmission power control.
In this research, our aim is to reduce energy consumption during both active communication and idle periods in communication. Mathematical analysis supported by simulations is used to validate the scalability of the proposed technique. The routing algorithm can use remaining battery energy to balance the routing or forwarding of packets among nodes by choosing appropriate nodes as packet forwarders. Using these metrics and this technique, we derive from DSR a new power aware and energy efficient protocol.
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Visual Cryptography Schemes Using Secrete Sharing: Survey Report

Shubhangi Rathod, Rahul Jadhav, Dipti Pawade, Harshada Sonkamble

Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique which encrypt a visual information (e.g. text, handwritten notes and pictures) in such a way that the decryption done by the human visual system. It needs neither cryptography knowledge nor complex computation. For security purposs, it also ensures that hacker cannot obtain any clues about a secret image from individual sharess. Naor and Shamir proposed the basic model of visual cryptography in 1994.
Visual cryptography scheme eliminates complex computation problem at the decryption the secret images can be restored by stack operation. The important issue of visual cryptography is quality of relevant image. Performance of visual cryptography scheme depends, such a number of image(single, multiple), types of image(binary, gray, color),share generation(meaningful, meaningless), security, accuracy pixel expansion, complexity,) encrypted by the scheme.
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Design of Capacitive Accelerometer Using Comsol Multiphysics

Harika K, Amitha S, Swapna P, Rajesh Kumar B

An increase in the research activity of industrial micromation made us to design the differential capacitive MEMS accelerometer. The simulation of static performance of accelerometer is accomplished with FEM analysis. A 3-Dimensional solid mechanics Finite Element analysis is conducted to calculate capacitance change when proof mass is subjected to acceleration. Design and simulations are done using the COMSOL multiphysics software.
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Computer Based Instruction and Its Effectiveness on Achievement of Students in Mathematics

Satwant Kaur

The present paper investigates the computer based instruction and its effectiveness on achievement of students in mathematics.
Computer based instruction enables the students to learn by selfevaluating and reflecting on their learning process. Mathematics achievement plays a very important role in the attainment of the ideal of harmonious development of a student. In this rapidly changing world and with the growing advancement in science and technology, the place of mathematics has become so vital that every parent today sets high goals for the students to achieve. Computer based instruction plays a very important role in achievement of students. It motivates children to learn better by providing them with the immediate feedback and reinforcement and by creating an exciting and interesting game-like atmosphere.
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Arabic & Urdu Text Segmentation Challenges & Techniques

Atif Mahmood

Text Segmentation is one of the critical and vital step in OCR system of any language because accuracy of OCR depends upon correctly segmented characters. Segmentation divide the text images into its constituent parts (i.e. lines, components or words and individual characters). As Urdu and Arabic are highly cursive and context sensitive in nature and have improper space between words therefore, segmentation is hard as compared to other languages like English, Hindi, Chinese, etc. This paper presents a survey of techniques regarding text segmentation of Urdu and Arabic languages and also discusses various challenges in segmentation.
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A Review on Web Mining: Methodologies and Algorithms

Parveen Rani, Sukhpreet Singh

The WWW is an important source of information. It is a system which is used to access documents and any other information like images, text, videos etc through internet. Web browser can view web pages which may contain text, images, videos and other multimedia information and find the way between them through hyperlinks. Web mining is the application of data mining techniques which is useful to extract knowledge from Web content, structure etc. The use of internet is increasing day by day. When we search any topic on the web, web search engines often return hundreds or thousands of results for a search which is very time consuming for users. On-line libraries, search engines, and other large document (e.g. customer support databases, product specification databases, news story archives, etc.) are growing very fast so that it is much difficult to categorize every document manually. To deal with these problems web mining is used. Web mining is a technique which is used to automatically find and extract information from the web. In this paper, we present an overview of web mining, its methodologies and algorithms.
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Design Complementary Structures Frequency Selective Surface for WLAN & WIMAX Applications

Surajit Mondal, Sourav Nandi, Tanumay Mandal, Patha Pratim Sarkar

This paper presents the investigation on multiband Frequency Selective Surface(FSS) which is properly operable on WLAN & WIMAX applications. The FSS consists of a metal square loop in the top metal layer and its complementary etched on the bottom metal layer square shaped patch keeping same periodicity throughout. The multiple(two) resonating frequencies in the range of (2-4GHz) have been obtained with the help of this design and both the multi frequency are suitable for the operation of WLAN & WIMAX applications. Theoretical investigations have been done by Ansoft Designer® software.
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Web Mining Techniques to Improve Hotel Management Services

Arvind K. Sharma

Web mining techniques have been frequently used to obtain meaningful information from the web based data. The aim of this paper is how web mining implemented to improve the hotel customer services by analyzing web-based hotel customer data. The complete work has been done by using PolyAnalyst web data mining tool. This paper demonstrates the use of web mining techniques in hotel industry.
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Parallel Algorithm Based Consumer Behavior Analysis for Generating Personalized Ontology System

S. Lakshmi Priya, S.Varatharajan

Consumer face a dramatic problem related to web search. They expect the most relevant and efficient results. While the result often disappoint the consumer and also their precious time. This paper propose a semantic web usage mining approach for discovering periodic internet access patterns from elucidated net usage logs which incorporates data on client emotions and behaviors through self-reporting and behavior tracking. We use fuzzy logic to represent real-life temporal ideas (e.g., morning) and requested resource attributes (ontological domain ideas for the requested URLs) of periodic pattern-primarily based web access activities.
These fuzzy temporal and resource representations, that contain both behavioral and emotional cues, are incorporated into a private Web Usage Lattice that models the user’s web access activities. From this, we tend to generate a private Net Usage Ontology, which enables semantic web applications such as customized web resources recommendation. Finally, we have a tendency to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by presenting experimental leads to the context of personalized net resources recommendation with varying degrees of emotional influence.
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Analysis of Detection and Prevention Techniques Against SQL Injection Vulnerabilities

K. Phalguna Rao, Dr. Ashish B.Sasankar, Dr. Vinay Chavan

SQL injection attacks create a serious security hazard to Web applications they allow attackers to obtain unrestricted access to the databases underlying the applications and to the potentially sensitive information these databases contain. In the last few months application-level vulnerabilities have been exploited with serious consequences by the hackers have tricked e-commerce sites into shipping goods for no charge, usernames and passwords have been harvested and confidential information such as addresses and credit-card numbers has been leaked. The reason for this occurrence is that web applications and detection systems do not know the attacks thoroughly and use limited sets of attack patterns during evaluation. Although researchers and practitioners have proposed various methods to address the SQL injection problem, current approaches either fail to address the full scope of the problem or have limitations that prevent their use and adoption. Many researchers and practitioners are familiar with only a subset of the wide range of techniques available to attackers who are trying to take advantage of SQL injection vulnerabilities. As a consequence, many solutions proposed in the literature address only some of the issues related to SQL injection. To address this problem, we present an extensive review of the different types of SQL injection attacks. We also present and analyze existing detection and prevention techniques against SQL injection attacks
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Power Optimized Technique Used for Digital Image Processing Applications

M. Sathi Babu, P. Ramesh Kumar, U. YEdukondalu

An advanced digital image acquisition system is present with power optimized clock gating technique for real time Digital image processing applications. Advantages of digital imaging over conventional analogy methods include the prospect to archive and transmit images in digital information systems as well as to digitally process pictures before exhibit, for example, to improve low contrast details. After reviewing two digital systems for the capture of images, we examine the real time acquisition of dynamic image. Object tracking requires image segmentation to make a distinction between the target objects and the rest of the scene in the captured image. This process partitions the captured image into several disjoint object regions based on common uniform feature characteristics this project involves blocks like initial capturing to pixel storing stages. One simple method is to segment the image based on colour by applying thresholds to each pixel. This is ideal for stream processing as thresholding is a point operation which can be implemented every stage is designed with more sophisticated techniques used for mostly for real time applications.
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Rule Based Approach for Machine Translation System for Related Languages: Punjabi to Hindi

Sumita Rani, Dr. Vijay Laxmi

Machine Translation is one of the important area in natural language processing. Machine Translation is a great challenge for closely related language pair. Machine Translation system for more or fewer related languages is based upon the similarities such as syntactic and vocabulary. Punjabi and Hindi both are originated from the same parent language so both are closely related and having lot of syntactic and semantic similarities. In this paper, for developing Punjabi to Hindi Machine Translation system, we look at the possibility of using Rule Based Approach. The system involves Punjabi as source language and Hindi as target language.
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Software Testing: Way to Develop Quality Software Product

Dipti Pawade, Harshada Sonkamble, Pranchal Chaudhari, Shubhangi Rathod

Software testing is one of the most important phase of software development life cycle. No one can underestimate the importance of software testing process on software quality assurance. Organization pays 40% of its efforts on testing process. A powerful testing technique results in reduced software development cost and time and improved performance. That is why choosing an appropriate testing technique is very important. In this paper we have discussed various testing approaches and methods, their peculiarities and finally discussed functional and non-functional testing.
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Review of Job Scheduling Algorithms for Proportional Sharing in Grid Computing

Harpreet Singh, Navjeet Kaur

Grid is a collection of heterogeneous systems or heterogeneous objects that are geographically distributed over a network. Job management is one of the chaotic issues of grid environment.
For effective utilization of the resources in grid systems, efficient application/job scheduling methods are required. Job scheduling algorithms are commonly applied by grid resource managers to optimally dispatch tasks to grid resources. Typically, grid users submit their own jobs to the grid manager to take full advantage of the grid facilities. The grid manager in a grid system tries to distribute the submitted jobs amongst the grid resources in such a way that the total response time is minimized. Similarly, there is an additional issue of providing fair share to each application of individual users according to their priority by the grid manager. There are various fair job scheduling algorithms which provided better proportional sharing accuracy. However, the time to select a client for execution using these algorithms grows with the number of clients. Most implementations require linear time to select a client for execution. In this paper, discussion on various job scheduling algorithms has been done which provide better proportional sharing accuracy.
This paper is divided into 6 sections. First section, describes basic introduction to grid computing and its functioning. Second section, describes about the how user’s job(s) are scheduled. Third section, describes about the various type of job scheduling algorithms. Fourth and fifth sections of this paper wind up the work with a general conclusion about the problem and future scope of the work.
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Modeling Academic Performance Evaluation Using Subtractive Clustering Approach

Ramjeet Singh Yadav, P. Ahmed

In this paper, we explore the applicability of Subtractive Clustering Technique (SCT) to student allocation problem that allocates new students to homogenous groups of specified maximum capacity, and analyze effects of such allocations on the academic performance of students. The paper also presents a Fuzzy set, Subtractive Clustering Technique (SCT) and regression analysis based Subtractive Clustering Fuzzy Expert System (SCFES) model which is capable of dealing with imprecision and missing data that is commonly inherited in the student academic performance evaluation. This model automatically converts crisp sets into fuzzy sets by using SCT.
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Heart Expert System using Bee Colony Optimization(BCO) Algorithm and Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO) Algorithm

Mandeep Kaur, Monica Goyal, Kamaljeet Kaur

In Artificial Intelligence Machine learning allows computers to learn based on data. In this paper rule-based techniques and machine-learning algorithms are used to create Human Heart disease database. The machine-learning algorithms used are Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) and Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO). The BBO and BCO techniques are used to diagnoses the diseases for the entered symptoms by the user. If the symptoms entered by the user matches to the rules available in the Knowledge base then it displays the actual disease, else it displays a message that the knowledge is incomplete. BBO technique is used in order to get the optimistic solution for the entered symptoms by the user. The proposed system is also supported by another feature called Bee Colony Optimization.
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Proposed Production System for Study Scheme Planner Based on Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Anjali Mathur, Shalini Agarwal

For examination point of view it is a difficult task for students to make a strategy about study planning. Artificial intelligence techniques can be useful to develop a planner machine which can automate the strategy for study. In this paper we proposed such type of planning machine by using artificial intelligence techniques.
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Technology in Education: A Review


“An investment in knowledge pays best interest.” The above quote by Benjamin Franklin is worth remembering. There can be ‘n’ number of investments but in terms of best proved and authentic one is knowledge which can be gained through education. Education in a widest view is a type of learning in which a child learns knowledge, skills and habits through an experienced person.
Technology on the other hand means making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. Technology clubbed with education, is today a fast developing field due its unanticipated progress and various benefits like increased productivity, faster access etc .No doubt every positive side has a negative side to it too, so is the case with technology in education.
Sometimes it is not easily available or there is some disruption, in the form of giving it or receiving. But it is an accepted fact that if it is used rationally, it can do wonders in education as it is already doing in various other spheres of life.
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A Review of Segmentation in Handwritten Document

Vneeta Rani, Dr. Vijay Luxmi

In this paper we present a method for line segmentation, word segmentation and character segmentation of handwritten document. Segmentation is a process of separting a text document into line, word and character. Segmentation is most important step of OCR (optical character recognition). The main challenge in the segmentation of handwritten language is the variation in handwriting styles and pen types.
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Line Segmentation of Gurmukhi Text on Chunk Based Projection Profiles

Abhilash Sharma, Avikar Sharma

The segmentation phase takes in a page image and separates different logical parts like text from graphics, lines of a paragraph, words of a line and character of a word. Text line extraction from handwritten document is a challenge because the text line is often skewed and curved and the space between the lines is not obvious.
So for the recognition of line the line segmentation technique is used which is based on Chunk based projection technique. This is very important step because inaccurately segmented text lines will cause error in recognition stage. It is one of the complicated problem for skewed text line segmentation of handwritten document in the developing a reliable OCR. Several techniques to segment handwritten text line have been proposed in the past. This paper seeks to provide a method to segment the skewed line of off-line handwritten characters.
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Character Segmentation of Handwritten Document in Devnagari Script

Vneeta Rani, Dr. Vijay Luxmi

Segmentation is a process to divide a complete document into small parts like paragraph into the lines, the line into words & word into characters. This process has used for removing the touching characters and lines. It has also used for removing the overlapped and broken characters. Segmentation is an important part of OCR. In this paper, there is focus on the character segmentation of handwritten document in Devnagari script. There are many languages use in devnagari script i.e. Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit & Nepali etc. We have worked only Hindi text and there are used for various vowels, consonants and modifiers in the Hindi language.
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Security Issues & Challenges in Cloud

Gurudatt Anil Kulkarni, Bhagawan Jadhwar, Prasad R. Khatawkar, Rupali Balaji Shelke, Pragati Prakash Chavan

The concept of cloud computing is a very vast concept which is very efficient and effective security services. The cloud computing methodology is a conceptual based technology which is used widely now a day. The cloud computing methodology is a conceptual based technology which is used widely now a day.
But in data privacy protection and data retrieval control is one of the most challenging research work in cloud computing, because of users secrete data which is to be stored by user. An enterprise usually store data in internal storage and then tries to protect the data from other outside source. They also provide authentication at certain specific level. Despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing, the organizations are slow in accepting it due to security issues and challenges associated with it. Security is one of the major issues which hamper the growth of cloud. The idea of handing over important data to another company is worrisome; such that the consumers need to be vigilant in understanding the risks of data breaches in this new environment. This paper introduces a detailed analysis of the cloud computing security issues and challenges focusing on the cloud computing types and
the service delivery types. This paper mainly proposes the core concept of secured cloud computing.
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ARDV: A New Density Based Outlier Mining Approach

Krishna Gopal Sharma, Govind Jha, Akash Yadav, Himanshu Sharma

Local Outlier Factor (LOF) is an important and well known density based outliers handling algorithm, which quantifies, how much an object is outlying, in a given database. In this paper first we discuss LOF then we introduce the concept of ARDV. In LOF there is a concept of lrd (local reachability density). If in place of lrd we calculate ard (average reachability distance) and in place of LOF we calculate variance in ard (ARDV) then experimental results show that percentage of detecting correct outliers increases without increasing time complexity.
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Queuing Theory

Abhilash Sharma, Drishty Sharma

A queue is a waiting line (like customers waiting at a supermarket checkout counter); queueing theory is the mathematical theory of waiting lines. More generally, queueing theory is concerned with the mathematical modeling and analysis of systems that provide service to random demands. A queueing model is an abstract description of such a system. Typically, a queueing model represents.
1. The system’s physical configuration, by specifying the number and arrangement of the servers, which provide service to the customers.
2. The stochastic (that is, probabilistic or statistical) nature of the demands, by specifying the variability in the arrival process and in the service process.
For example, in the context of computer communications, a communications channel might be a server, and the messages the customers; the (random) times at which messages request the use of
the channel would be the arrival process, and the (random) lengths of service time that the messages hold the channel while being transmitted would constitute the service process. Another example is a computer system where a programmer (customer) sitting at a terminal requests access to a CPU (server) for the processing of a transaction; both the arrival time of the request for access and the amount of processing time requested are random. Then, the mathematical analysis of the models would yield formulas that presumably relate the physical and stochastic parameters to certain performance measures, such as average waiting time, server utilization, throughput, probability of buffer overflow, etc. The art of applied queueing theory is to construct a model that is simple enough so that it yields to mathematical analysis, yet contains sufficient detail so that its performance measures reflect the behavior of the real system.
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Recognition of Handwritten Devanagari Numerals

Navneet Kaur, Monica Goyal

Recognition of Devanagari numerals is a difficult task.Extensive research has been done on character recognition in the last few decades.In optical character a numeral, character or symbol to be recognized can be machined printed or handwritten character or numeral. There are several approaches that deal with the study of handwritten Devanagari numerals depending on the type of feature extracted and different way of extracting them. In this paper, a new is used for recognition of handwritten Devanagari characters. We explain the segmentation, feature extraction, water reservoir method, and neural network techniques. Feature extraction provides 92% accuracy of numeral recognition; water reservoir provides 94.34% accuracy. We also discuss various problems exist in numeral recognition.
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Detecting Static Object in a Busy Scene

Sarbjeet Kaur, Navjinder Singh

Detecting static objects in scenes containing number of moving objects is the problem in video surveillance. One example is the detection of suspicious packages which is left unattended in an airport terminal or railway station. This paper outlines an approach to automatically detect static objects from a video sequence of a busy scene. Our approach contains two phase: foreground object extraction and object matching. In the fast phase, we find the foreground objects in current video frame using an image of a background as reference. In the object matching phase, we try to match the objects with objects that appear before in previous frames. Matching is done based on three parameters shape and position, intensity and edge. Preliminary experiments show that our system is able to identify static objects in a busy scene in real time.
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